Category Archives: Research work

Geometry of Jets and Fields in honour of Professor Janusz Grabowski

The conference proceedings for Geometry of Jets and Fields in honour of Professor Janusz Grabowski are now published: you can find an online version here.

I have a contribution with Janusz Grabowski, Katarzyna Grabowska and Paweł Urbański entitled New developments in geometric mechanics.

Gennadi Sardanashvily – passed away on the September 1, 2016 – also has a contribution in the proceedings. I did not know Sardanashvily well, but our few interactions told me he was a nice guy. I am sure the community will miss him.

In better news, my wife Gemma had a portrait of Janusz Grabowski published in the proceedings!

Linearising graded manifolds

Our paper, Polarisation of Graded Bundles, with Janusz Grabowski and Mikołaj Rotkiewicz has now been published in SIGMA [1].

In the paper we show that Graded bundles (cf. [2]), which are a particular kind of graded manifold (cf. [3]), can be `fully linearised’ or `polarised’. That is, given any graded bundle of degree k, we can associate with it in a functorial way a k-fold vector bundle – we call this the full linearisation functor. In the paper [1], we fully characterise this functor. Hopefully, this notion will prove fruitful in applications as k-fold vector bundles are nice objects that that various equivalent ways of describing them.

Graded Bundles
Graded bundles are particular examples of polynomial bundles: that is we have a fibre bundle whose are \(\mathbb{R}^{N}\) and the admissible changes of local coordinates are polynomial. A little more specifically, a graded bundle $F$, is a polynomial bundle for which the base coordinates are assigned a weight of zero, while the fibre coordinates are assigned a weight in \(\mathbb{N} \setminus 0\). Moreover we require that admissible changes of local coordinates respect the weight. The degree of a graded bundle is the highest weight that we assign to the fibre coordinates.

Any graded bundle admits a series of affine fibrations
\(F = F_k \rightarrow F_{k-1} \rightarrow \cdots \rightarrow F_{1} \rightarrow F_{0} =M\),
which is locally given by projecting out the higher weight coordinates.

For example, a graded bundle of degree 2 admits local coordinates \((x, y ,z)\) of weight 0,1, and 2 respectively. Changes of coordinates are then, `symbolically’
\(x’ = x'(x)\),
\(y’ = y T(x)\),
\(z’ = z G(x) + \frac{1}{2} y y H(x)\),
which clearly preserve the weight.

We then have a series of fibrations
\(F_2 \rightarrow F_1 \rightarrow M\),
given (locally) by
\((x,y,z) \mapsto (x,y) \mapsto (x)\).

Linearisation
The basic idea of the full linearisation is quite simple – I won’t go into details here. Recall the notion of polarisation of a homogeneous polynomial. The idea is that one adjoins new variables in order to produce a multi-linear form from a homogeneous polynomial. The original polynomial can be recovered by examining the diagonal.

As graded bundles are polynomial bundles, and the changes of local coordinates respect the weight, we too can apply this idea to fully linearise a graded bundle. That is, we can enlarge the manifold by including more and more coordinates in the correct way as to linearise the changes of coordinates. In this way we obtain a k-fold vector bundle, and the original graded bundle, which we take to be of degree k.

So, how do we decide on these extra coordinates? The method is to differentiate, reduce and project. That is we should apply the tangent functor as many times as is needed and then look for a substructure thereof. So, let us look at the degree 2 case, which is simple enough to see what is going on. In particular we only need to differentiate once, but you can quickly convince yourself that for higher degrees we just repeat the procedure.

The tangent bundle \( T F_2\) – which we consider the tangent bundle as a double graded bundle – admits local coordinates
\((\underbrace{x}_{(0,0)}, \; \underbrace{y}_{(1,0)} ,\; \underbrace{z}_{(2,0)} \; \underbrace{\dot{x}}_{(0,1)}, \; \underbrace{\dot{y}}_{(1,1)} ,\; \underbrace{\dot{z}}_{(2,1)})\)

The changes of coordinates for the ‘dotted’ coordinates are inherited from the changes of coordinates on \(F_2\),
\(\dot{x}’ = \dot{x}\frac{\partial x’}{\partial x}\),
\( \dot{y}’ = \dot{y}T(x) + y \dot{x} \frac{\partial T}{\partial x}\),
\(\dot{z}’ = \dot{z}G(x) + z \dot{x}\frac{\partial G}{\partial x} + y \dot{y}H(x) + \frac{1}{2}y y \dot{x}\frac{\partial H}{\partial x}\).
Thus we have differentiated.

Clearly we can restrict to the vertical bundle while still respecting the assignment of weights – one inherited from \(F_2\) and the other comes from the vector bundle structure of a tangent bundle. In fact, what we need to do is shift the first weight by minus the second weight. Technically, this means that we no longer are dealing with graded bundles, the coordinate \(\dot{x}\) will be of bi-weight (-1,1). However, the amazing thing here is that we can set this coordinate to zero – as we should do when looking at the vertical bundle – and remain in the category of graded bundles. That is, not only is setting \(\dot{x}=0\) well-defined, you see this from the coordinate transformations; but also this keeps us in the right category. We have preformed a reduction of the (shifted) tangent bundle.

Thus we arrive at a double graded bundle \(VF_2\) which admits local coordinates
\((\underbrace{x}_{(0,0)}, \; \underbrace{y}_{(1,0)} ,\; \underbrace{z}_{(2,0)}, \; \underbrace{\dot{y}}_{(0,1)} ,\; \underbrace{\dot{z}}_{(1,1)})\),
and the obvious admissible changes thereof.

Now, observe that we have the degree of \(z\) as (2,0), which is the coordinate with the highest first component of the bi-weight. Thus, as we have the structure of a graded bundle, we can project to a graded bundle of one lower degree \(\pi : VF_2 \rightarrow l(F_2)\). The resulting double vector bundle is what we will call the linearisation of \(F_2\).

So we have constructed a manifold with coordinates
\((\underbrace{x}_{(0,0)}, \; \underbrace{y}_{(1,0)}, \; \underbrace{\dot{y}}_{(0,1)} ,\; \underbrace{\dot{z}}_{(1,1)})\),
with changes of coordinates
\(x’ = x'(x)\),
\(y’ = y T(x)\)
\( \dot{y}’ = \dot{y}T(x)\),
\(\dot{z}’ = \dot{z}G(x) + y \dot{y}H(x)\).

Then, by comparison with the changes of local coordinates on \(F_2\) you see that we have a canonical embedding of the original graded bundle in its linearisation as a ‘diagonal’
\(\iota : F_2 \rightarrow l(F_2)\),
by setting \(\dot{y} = y\) and \(\dot{z} = 2 z\).

References
[1] Andrew James Bruce, Janusz Grabowski and Mikołaj Rotkiewicz, Polarisation of Graded Bundles, SIGMA 12 (2016), 106, 30 pages.

[2] Janusz Grabowski and Mikołaj Rotkiewicz, Graded bundles and homogeneity structures, J. Geom. Phys. 62 (2012), 21-36.

[3] Th.Th. Voronov, Graded manifolds and Drinfeld doubles for Lie bialgebroids, in Quantization, Poisson Brackets and Beyond (Manchester, 2001), Contemp. Math., Vol. 315, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2002, 131-168.

HISTRUCT — Workshop on higher structures

There will be a workshop on Leibniz algebras and other higher structures at the University of Luxembourg December 13–16, 2016. For details check the announcement below.

—————————————————————-

HISTRUCT — Workshop on higher structures

When: 13–16 December 2016

Where: University of Luxembourg-campus Kirchberg, Luxembourg, LUXEMBOURG

Website: http://math.uni.lu/leibniz/

Aim and scope
The purpose of this workshop is to bring together mathematicians working on Leibniz algebras and other higher structures.

Confirmed speakers include:
Olivier ELCHINGER (University of Luxembourg)
Yaël FRÉGIER (Université d’Artois)
Xevi GUITART (Universitat de Barcelona)
Honglei LANG (Max Planck Institute for Mathematics)
Camille LAURENT-GENGOUX (University of Lorraine)
Zhangju LIU (Peking University)
Mykola MATVIICHUK (University of Toronto)
Sergei MERKULOV (University of Luxembourg)
Norbert PONCIN (University of Luxembourg)
Florian SCHÄTZ (University of Luxembourg)
Martin SCHLICHENMAIER (University of Luxembourg)
Boris SHOIKET (Antwerp University)
Mathieu STIENON (Pennsylvania State University, USA)
Ping XU (Pennsylvania State University, USA)

Registration : http://math.uni.lu/leibniz/reg.html
The deadline for registration is the 2nd of December 2016.

Research Project
– This conference is funded in the frame of the OPEN Scheme of the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg (FNR) with the project QUANTMOD O13/5707106 and
– Partial funding by the Mathematics Research Unit is acknowledged.

Please feel free to circulate this announcement around you!

The organizers:
Martin Schlichenmaier (Luxembourg)
Ping Xu (Penn State, USA)
Olivier Elchinger (Luxembourg)

On pre-Courant algebroids

Janusz Grabowski and I have placed a prepint on the arXiv with the title Pre-Courant Algebroids.

In the `classical language’, a Courant algebroid is a vector bundle, whose sections come equipped with a bracket – bilinear map – together with an anchor map and a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form that satisfy some compatibility conditions. The bracket on the space of sections is not a Lie bracket, but rather a non-skewsymmetric bracket that satisfies the Jacobi identity in Loday-Leibniz form. This bracket is usually called the Courant–Dorfman bracket.

A pre-Courant algebroid can be thought of as a Courant algebroid but without the Jacobi identity on the Courant–Dorfman pre-bracket.

It has long be known, due to Roytenberg [1], that Courant algebroids are `really’ symplectic Lie 2-algebroids. That is, we have an N-manifold of degree 2 (a supermanifold with a particular additional grading), equipped with a nondegenerate Poisson bracket of degree -2 and a homological vector field of degree 1 that is Hamiltonian. The brackets of Courant algebroid can then be recovered using the derived bracket formalism and the bilinear form is encoded in the symplectic structure.

Pre-Courant algebroids in the superlanguage
So, do we have a similar understanding of pre-Courant algebroids? The answer is yes…

First back to Courant algebroids. As stated above, they can be encoded in a Hamiltonian vector field – and so they can be encoded in a Grassmann odd Hamiltonian of degree/weight 3, which we denote as \( \Theta\). The fact that the Hamiltonian vector field is homological (Grassmann odd and squares to zero) is equivalent to

\( \{ \Theta, \Theta \} =0 \).

This condition encodes all the compatibility conditions between the bracket and the anchor map (a particular vector bundle map to the tangent bundle). More than that, this condition also encodes the Jacobi identity for the bracket. Thus, we need a weaker condition that is not too weak – we only want to lose the Jacobi identity and keep the other conditions. It turns out that we require

\( \{\{ \Theta, \Theta \}, f\} =0 \),

for all weight zero functions f, if we want to encode a pre-Courant algebroid in exactly the same way as we do a Courant algebroid. In the preprint we define what we call symplectic almost Lie 2-algebroids in this way and show how they correspond to pre-Courant algebroids.

Does this help any?
This change in starting position simplifies many basic facts about pre-Courant algebroids – just as it does with Courant algebroids. In particular, the notion a Dirac structures as a particular Lagrangian submanifolds is quite clear.

In the preprint was also show that including a compatible N-grading is quite simple when one uses the language of homogeneity structures [2]. One should also consult [3,4] where the notion of weighted Lie groupoids and weighted Lie algebroids are explored. As an example VB-Courant algebroids – Courant algebroids with a compatible vector bundle structure – are natural examples of weighted (pre-)Courant algebroids. This change of postion to `graded super bundles’ with some additional structures allows for a very neat understanding of weighted Dirac structure and in particular VB-Dirac structures. This framework simplifes the understanding of many thing.

Conclusion
The bottom line seems to be that Courant algebroids are `really’ sympelectic Lie 2-algebroids and pre-Courant algebroids are really symplectic almost Lie 2-algebroids.

References
[1] D. Roytenberg, On the structure of graded symplectic supermanifolds and Courant algebroids, in: Quantization, Poisson brackets and beyond (Manchester, 2001), 169–185, Contemp. Math. 315, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2002.

[2] J. Grabowski & M. Rotkiewicz, Graded bundles and homogeneity structures, J. Geom. Phys. 62 (2012), 21–36.

[3] A.J. Bruce, K. Grabowska & J. Grabowski, Graded bundles in the category of Lie groupoids, SIGMA 11 (2015), 090.

[4] A.J. Bruce, K. Grabowska & J. Grabowski, Linear duals of graded bundles and higher analogues of (Lie) algebroids, J. Geom. Phys. 101
(2016), 71–99.

Kirillov structures up to homotopy

My paper with Alfonso Tortorell on higher versions of Kirillov’s local Lie algebras has now been published in Diffrential Geometry and Applications [1]. If you have access to this journal you can follow this link.

In this paper we take the point of view that Jacobi geometry is best understood as homogeneous Poisson geometry – that is Poisson geometry on principle \(\mathbb{R}^{\times}\)-bundles. Every line bundle over a manifold can be understood in terms of such a principle bundle.

The same holds try when we pass to supermanifolds. With this in mind Alfonso and I more-or-less just replace Poisson with higher or homotopy Poisson. This allows us to neatly define an \(L_{\infty}\)-algebra on the space of sections of an even line bundle in the categeory of supermanifolds. This algebra is the higher/homotopy generalisation of Kirillov’s local Lie algebra on the space of sections of a line bundle.

We show that the basic theorems from Kirillov’s local Lie algebras or Jacobi bundles all passes to this higher case.

Refrences
[1] Andrew James Bruce & Alfonso Giuseppe Tortorella, Kirillov structures up to homotopy, Differential Geometry and its Applications Volume 48, October 2016, Pages 72–86.

A geometric framework for supermechanics

K. Grabowska, Moreno and myself have placed a preprint on the arXiv called ‘On a geometric framework for Lagrangian supermechanics‘.

In this work we take the notion of a curve on a supermanifold to be an S-curve, which is an ‘element’ of the mapping supermanifold Hom(R,M) [1]. This mapping supermanifold is a generalised supermanifold and so it is a functor from the (opposite) category of supermanifolds to sets. Each ‘element’ needs to be ‘probed’ by a supermanifold, and so S-curves are ‘curves’ that are parameterised by all supermanifolds. Or maybe better to say that an S-curve is a family of functors paramaterised by time. At any given time and a given supermanifold S, we have a morphism of supermanifolds S → M. That is, an S-curve tracks out the S-points of M.

With this robust notion of a curve, we go on to define what we mean by an autonomous ordinary differential equation on a supermaifold, and more importantly what we mean by a solution. This seems to have been a notion not at all clearly defined in the existing literature. For us, a differential equation is a sub-structure of the tangent bundle of the said supermanifold, and solutions are S-curves on the supermanifold for which their tangent prolongation sit inside the differential equation. This is very close to the classical notions, but now we use S-points and not just the topological points.

We then take these notion and apply them to supermechanical systems given in terms of a Lagrangian. We use Tulczyjew’s geometric approach to Lagrangian mechanics, and really we only modify the notion of a curve and not the underlying geometry of Tulczyjew’s approach [2]. In doing so, we have a well defined notion of the phase dynamics, the Euler-Lagrange equations and solutions thereof for mechanical systems on supermanifolds. We present a few nice example, includinh Witten’s N=2 supersymmetric model [3] and geodesics on a super-sphere.

The importance of this work is not so much in the equations we present, these can be derived using formal variations. The point is we give some proper mathematical understanding of solutions to the equations.

References
[1] Andrew James Bruce, On curves and jets of curves on supermanifolds, Archivum Mathematicum, vol. 50 (2014), issue 2, pp. 115-130.
[2] W. M. Tulczyjew, The Legendre transformation, Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Sect. A (N.S.), 27(1):101–114, 1977.
[3] Edward Witten, Dynamical Breaking of Supersymmetry, Nucl. Phys. , B188:513, 1981.

What I have mostly been doing…

J. Grabowski, K. Grabowska and I have placed a preprint on the arXiv called ‘Introduction to Graded Bundles‘ [1], which is based on a talk given by Prof Grabowski at the First International Conference of Differential Geometry, Fez (Morocco), April 11-15, 2016.

The preprint outlines much of our recent work on graded bundles (a nice kind of graded manifold) and their linearisation (as a functor to k-fold vector bundles), as well as the notions of weighted Lie groupoids and algebroids, including the Lie theory.

One key observation that must be made is that there are many examples of graded bundles that appear in the existing literature, it is just that they are not recognised as such and their graded structure is not really exploited. The canonical example here are the higher order tangent bundles which are well studied from the perspective of higher order mechanics.

Anyway, if anyone want to get a quick overview of some of the ideas behind my work, then I direct them to this preprint. If you are interested in the applications to mechanics, then I suggest [2] as well as references therein.

References
[1] Introduction to graded bundles, Andrew J. Bruce, K. Grabowska, J. Grabowski, arXiv:1605.03296 [math.DG]

[2] New developments in geometric mechanics, A. J. Bruce, K. Grabowska, J. Grabowski, P. Urbanski, arXiv:1510.00296 [math-ph].

How can you superise a graded manifold?

The question J. Grabowski, M. Rotkiewicz and I asked was ‘how can we superise a (purely even) graded manifold?’ We propose an interesting solution in our latest preprint Superisation of graded manifolds.

We start with the problem of passing from a particular ‘species’ of graded manifold, known as graded bundles [1]. Graded bundles are non-negatively graded (purely even) manifolds for which the grading is associated with a smooth action of the multiplicative monoid of reals. Such graded manifolds have a well defined structure, nice topological properties and a well defined differential calculus. For these reason we decided that this special class of graded manifold should be the starting place.

Moreover, any vector bundle structure can be encoded in a regular action of the monoid of multiplicative reals. A graded bundle is a ‘vector bundle’ for which we relax the condition of being regular. As everyone knows, the parity reversion functor takes a vector bundle (the total space of) and produces a linearly fibred supermanifold. This functor just declares the fibre coordinates of the vector bundle (in the category of smooth manifolds) to be Grassmann odd. Importantly, one can ‘undo’ this superisation by once again shifting the Grassmann parity of the fibre coordinates. Thus, the parity reversion functor acting on purely even vector bundles is an inconvertible functor and we establish a categorical equivalence between vector bundles and linearly fibred supermanifolds.

Passing to graded bundles
However, such a direct functor cannot exist for graded bundles. Graded bundles are not ‘linear objects’, the changes of non-zero weight local coordinates are polynomial. Simply declaring some coordinates to be Grassmann odd is not going to produce an invertible functor: we have nilpotent elements and now terms that are skew-symmetric which by contraction with symmetric terms in the transformation laws will vanish. In short, some information about the changes of local coordinates is going to be lost when we superise by brute force. We do obtain a functor that takes a graded bundle and produces a supermanifold, but we cannot go back!

Any meaningful ‘superisation’ of a graded bundle must be in terms of an invertible functor and allow us to establish a categorical equivalence between the category of graded bundles and some subcategory of the category of supermanifolds (or some other ‘super-objects’).

Our solution to this conundrum is a two stage plan of attack: first fully linearise and then superise.

Full linearisation
First we fully linearise a graded bundle by repeated application of the linearisation functor [2]. In this way we get a functor that takes a graded bundle of degree k and produces a k-fold vector bundle. In the paper we characterise this functor and make several interesting observations, especially in relation to the degree two case.

The basic idea of the full linearisation is that we polarise the polynomial changes of local coordinates. That is, we add more and more local coordinates in such a way as to fully linearise the changes of coordinates. We do this by repeated application of the tangent functor and substructures thereof. We also have an inverse procedure of diagonalisation, which allows us to ‘undo’ the full linearsation.

As a k-fold vector bundle is ‘multi-linear’ we can superise it!

Standard superisation
Following Voronov [3], we can apply the standard parity reversion functor to a k-fold vector bundle in each ‘direction’ and obtain a supermanifold. Thus, by fully linearising a graded bundle and then application of the parity reversion functor in each ‘direction’ we obtain a supermanifold.

However, this procedure is not really unique: one obtains different functors depending on which order each parity reversion functor is applied. These different functor are of course related by a natural transformation, so there is no deep problem here. However, when we consider just vector bundles the parity reversion functor works perfectly and we have no ambiguities in our choice of functor. This suggest that we can do something better for k-fold vector bundles and our superisation of graded bundles.

Higher supermanifolds
Instead of using standard supermanifolds we can employ \(\mathbb{Z}_{2}^{k}\)-supermanifolds [4]. It is known from [4] that these ‘higher supermanifolds’ offer a neat way to superise k-fold vector bundles without any ambiguities. Thus, in our paper we apply this higher superisation to the lineariastion of a graded bundle.

In short, we can in a functorial and invertible way associate a \(\mathbb{Z}_{2}^{k}\)-supermanifold with a graded bundle answering our opening question.

References
[1] J. Grabowski & M. Rotkiewicz, Graded bundles and homogeneity structures, J. Geom. Phys. 62 (2012), no. 1, 21–36.

[2] A.J. Bruce, K. Grabowska & J. Grabowski, Linear duals of graded bundles and higher analogues of (Lie) algebroids, arXiv:1409.0439 [math-ph], (2014).

[3] Th.Th. Voronov, Q-manifolds and Mackenzie theory, Comm. Math. Phys. 315 (2012), no. 2, 279-310.

[4] T. Covolo, J. Grabowski & N. Poncin, \(\mathbb{Z}_{2}^{n}\)-Supergeometry I: Manifolds and Morphisms, arXiv:1408.2755[math.DG], (2014).

Paper on weighted Groupoids publsihed in SIGMA

Our paper ‘Graded bundles in the Category of Lie Groupoids‘, written with K. Grabowska and J. Grabowski, has now been published in the journal Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (SIGMA).

In this paper we define weighed Lie groupoids as Lie groupoids with a compatible action of the multiplicative monoid of reals. Such actions are known as homogeneity structures [1]. Compatibility means that the action for any ‘time’ acts as a morphism of Lie groupoids. These actions encode a non-negative integer grading on the Lie groupoid compatible with the groupoid structure, and so we have a kind of ‘graded Lie groupoid’. Importantly, weighted Lie groupoids form a nice generalisation of VB-groupoids (VB = Vector Bundle), which can be defined as a Lie groupoids with regular homogeneity structures [2].

Based on our earlier work [3], in which we similarly define weighed Lie algebroids, we present the basics of weighted Lie theory. In particular we show that weighted Lie algebroids and weighted Lie groupoids are related by more-or-less standard Lie theory: we just need to use Lie II to integrate the action of the homogeneity structure on the weighted Lie algebroid.

The main point here is that we not only naturally generalise ‘VB-objects’, we simplify working with them. In particular, VB-objects require that the homogeneity structure be regular as this encodes a vector bundle structure [4]. The nice, but somewhat technical results of Bursztyn, Cabrera and del Hoyo [2] rely on showing that regularity of the homogeneity structure is preserved under ‘differentiation’ and ‘integration’. That is, when you pass from a groupoid to an algebroid and vice versa. Differentiation is no problem here, but integration is a much tougher question.

However, if we now consider VB-objects as sitting inside the larger category of weighted-objects then we can forget about the preservation of regularity during integration and simply check after that regularity is preserved. Bursztyn et al forced themselves to work in a smaller and not so nice category. We showed that working in this larger category of weighted-objects can simplify working with VB-objects.

Along side this, we show that there are plenty of nice and natural examples of weighted Lie groupoids. For example, the higher order tangent bundle of a Lie groupoid is a weighted Lie groupoid. This and other examples convince us that weighted Lie groupoids are important objects and that there is plenty of work to do.

References
[1] Grabowski J., Rotkiewicz M., Graded bundles and homogeneity structures, J. Geom. Phys. 62 (2012), 21-36, arXiv:1102.0180.

[2] Bursztyn H., Cabrera A., del Hoyo M., Vector bundles over Lie groupoids and algebroids, arXiv:1410.5135.

[3] Bruce A.J., Grabowska K., Grabowski J., Linear duals of graded bundles and higher analogues of (Lie) algebroids, arXiv:1409.0439.

[4] Grabowski J., Rotkiewicz M., Higher vector bundles and multi-graded symplectic manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 59 (2009), 1285-1305, math.DG/0702772.